Heat in the city. Survival guide

Story How to Survive the Heat in the City

Europe has been suffering from heat for many days now. The heat is also peeking into Russia. Forecasters predict a new round of heat already this weekend, the thermometers can reach record levels, the weekend of August 13-14 can become the hottest in the summer.

According to  forecast by scientific director of the Hydrometeorological Center of Russia Roman Vilfand, on Saturday and Sunday will be four to five degrees above the new climatic norms, the expert told RIA Novosti. The heat in Moscow will continue until the middle of next week.

Heat — this is not only an extra reason to leave the city or go to the beach, but and a rather serious test for our health, mood, and for animals and even our cars. Overcoming trials should be wisely, carefully prepared. We tell you how to survive this difficult time without hurting yourself.

Heat in Moscow

Abnormal heat comes to not for the first time. On such days, the inhabitants of the city are drawn to reservoirs, and if there is nothing suitable nearby, then to fountains, in order to feel at least a little freshness next to murmuring water. Walks in nature, in parks and squares — also one of the way to survive in hot weather.

You can see how Muscovites escaped the heat when the weather set records in different years in photo gallery aif.ru.

Anomalous heat in Moscow in different years

In June 1954, the air temperature in the capital rose to 33 degrees. In the photo: vacationers on the beach in Serebryany Bor in the 1950s. © RIA Novosti/Evgeny Tikhanov “520” width=”800″ style=”display: block;” />

In 1972, all three summer months were abnormally warm, the hottest in Moscow was July 7 and August 21 (34.8). In the photo: residents of the capital sunbathe and swim in the Moskva River near the metro bridge on Vorobyovy Gory (formerly known as Leninskiye Gory) in the 1970s. © RIA Novosti/Valery Shustov “531” width=”775″ style=”display: block;” />

In 1981, a 30-degree heat set in from the end of June, in July there were nine days with a temperature of 30 degrees and above. The peak value of the summer season in 1981 was 35 degrees (July 22). On the photo: Luzhnetskaya embankment in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/M. Barabanov =”531″ width=”353″ style=”display: block;” />

In 1988, the temperature in Moscow rose to 32.5 degrees (June 6) and to 32.7 degrees (June 7). In the photo: a woman is resting in Izmailovsky Park. © RIA Novosti/Fidler

June 1998 was abnormally warm: the heat lasted from the beginning of the month until the 20th. The air temperature in the capital warmed up to 30 degrees and above: June 10 (30.0), June 11 (31.3), June 12 (30.8), June 13 (30.3), June 14 (33.4) and June 15 (33.9). In the photo: a girl at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square. © RIA Novosti/Oleg Lastochkin

In 1999, hot, dry weather lasted almost the whole of June, during 18 days the daytime air temperature warmed up to 28-32 degrees. In the photo: residents of the capital spend their free time by the water on a hot day. © RIA Novosti/Dmitry Korobeinikov

July 29, 2010 the temperature in Moscow rose to 38.2 degrees. Smog and the smell of burning from forest and peat fires in the suburbs spread throughout the capital. © RIA Novosti/Konstantin Chalabov “531” width=”797″ style=”display: block;” />

On August 6, 2010, the temperature in Moscow rose to 37.3 degrees. In the photo: a man is resting on the lawn under an umbrella. © RIA Novosti/Mikhail Fomichev “531” width=”734″ style=”display: block;” />

On June 27, 2013, the temperature in Moscow rose to 32 degrees. In the photo: vacationers at the Friendship of Peoples fountain at VDNKh. © RIA Novosti/Ekaterina Chesnokova

On June 5, 2014, the temperature in Moscow rose to 31.6 degrees. In the photo: Moscow residents flee from the heat at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square. © RIA Novosti/Grigory Sysoev “531” width=”790″ style=”display: block;” />

On June 17, 2020, the temperature record set in 1892 was broken in Moscow. The air in the capital warmed up to 31.4 degrees. On the photo: Tverskaya street in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Aleksey Maishev “481” width=”800″ style=”display: block;” />

On June 23, 2021, the temperature in Moscow rose to 34.8 degrees. In the photo: a girl bathes in the White Lake in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Pavel Bednyakov

August 6 was the second hottest day of the current summer in Moscow after July 11, when the air temperature was 32.8 degrees Celsius. On August 6, 2022, the temperature rose to plus 31.7 degrees. In the photo: people at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Evgeny Biyatov

Anomalous heat in Moscow in different years

In June 1954, the air temperature in the capital rose to 33 degrees. In the photo: vacationers on the beach in Serebryany Bor in the 1950s. © RIA Novosti/Evgeny Tikhanov

In 1972, all three summer months were abnormally warm, the hottest in Moscow was July 7 and August 21 (34.8). In the photo: residents of the capital sunbathe and swim in the Moskva River near the metro bridge on Vorobyovy Gory (formerly known as Leninskiye Gory) in the 1970s. © RIA Novosti/Valery Shustov :block;” />

In 1981, a 30-degree heat set in from the end of June, in July there were nine days with a temperature of 30 degrees and above. The peak value of the summer season in 1981 was 35 degrees (July 22). On the photo: Luzhnetskaya embankment in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/M. Drums display: block;” />

In 1988, the temperature in Moscow rose to 32.5 degrees (June 6) and to 32.7 degrees (June 7). In the photo: a woman is resting in Izmailovsky Park. © RIA Novosti/Fidler block;” />

June 1998 was abnormally warm: the heat continued from the beginning of the month until the 20th. The air temperature in the capital warmed up to 30 degrees and above: June 10 (30.0), June 11 (31.3), June 12 (30.8), June 13 (30.3), June 14 (33.4) and June 15 (33.9). In the photo: a girl at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square. © RIA Novosti/Oleg Lastochkin :block;” />

In 1999, hot, dry weather lasted almost the whole of June, during 18 days the daytime air temperature warmed up to 28-32 degrees. In the photo: residents of the capital spend their free time by the water on a hot day. © RIA Novosti/Dmitry Korobeinikov

July 29, 2010 the temperature in Moscow rose to 38.2 degrees. Smog and the smell of burning from forest and peat fires in the suburbs spread throughout the capital. © RIA Novosti/Konstantin Chalabov :block;” />

On August 6, 2010, the temperature in Moscow rose to 37.3 degrees. In the photo: a man is resting on the lawn under an umbrella. © RIA Novosti/Mikhail Fomichev :block;” />

On June 27, 2013, the temperature in Moscow rose to 32 degrees. In the photo: vacationers at the Friendship of Peoples fountain at VDNKh. © RIA Novosti/Ekaterina Chesnokova :block;” />

On June 5, 2014, the temperature in Moscow rose to 31.6 degrees. In the photo: Moscow residents flee from the heat at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square. © RIA Novosti/Grigory Sysoev :block;” />

On June 17, 2020, the temperature record set in 1892 was broken in Moscow. The air in the capital warmed up to 31.4 degrees. On the photo: Tverskaya street in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Aleksey Maishev :block;” />

On June 23, 2021, the temperature in Moscow rose to 34.8 degrees. In the photo: a girl bathes in the White Lake in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Pavel Bednyakov :block;” />

August 6 was the second hottest day of the current summer in Moscow after July 11, when the air temperature was 32.8 degrees Celsius. On August 6, 2022, the temperature rose to plus 31.7 degrees. In the photo: people at the fountain on Manezhnaya Square in Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Evgeny Biyatov

Risk group

When it  outside 30 degrees and such weather lasts for for several days, it's hard for everyone. Especially those who suffer from chronic diseases, the elderly. They should be especially attentive to their health and lifestyle. The load on the cardiovascular system is growing, the heart beats more often, and the body loses fluid on a larger scale than in usual time.

For the elderly, dehydration is very dangerous, they need to replenish the lack of fluid in time. “However, elderly people may have problems with  — warns aif.ru readers Chief Geriatrician of the Moscow Department of Health, ­Deputy Director of the Russian Gerontological Research and Clinical Center, Professor Nadezhda Runikhina. — With age, many people begin to feel less thirsty. There are patients who, due to such a geriatric syndrome as urinary incontinence, specifically try to limit their water intake. Others try to drink less to avoid profuse sweating. A decrease in fluid in the body leads to a whole cascade of adverse reactions. In particular, the risk of thrombosis increases, because. blood viscosity increases. And this, in turn, can lead to heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis — depending on in in which vessels blood clots have formed».

Do not refresh, but dehydrate

When it's hot, we really want something refreshing, but instead of cooling the body a little, we harm it and dehydrate it. And if healthy people can tolerate such mistakes relatively calmly without noticing them, although not without long-term consequences, then people who suffer from diseases of the kidneys or cardiovascular system may feel very unwell.

For for example, everyone's favorite watermelon, the main berry of the end of summer — contribute to dehydration and  edema, according to pediatrician, candidate of medical sciences Irina Yuzup, diuretic products (watermelons, tomatoes, celery) contribute to dehydration of the body, and also contain an excess of salts and  sugars. Therefore, in the heat they must be consumed very sparingly.

Alcohol — main enemy

A mug of beer in the heat or a refreshing mojito will do much more harm in the heat than in normal weather, because we remember that alcohol, even in small quantities, is harmful to health. According to immunologist-allergist Anna Shulyaeva, alcohol in & nbsp; heat damages blood vessels and & nbsp; dehydrates the body. Alcohol needs a lot of water to break down, and even at normal temperatures it's difficult for the body, let alone when the body is exhausted by the heat. Against the background of its use, dryness in the mouth begins, there may be a headache. As a result, alcohol only increases thirst, dehydration on its background on a hot day is fraught with dizziness and fainting. And the load on the heart and vessels is still growing, which is fraught with a drop in blood pressure, the risks of heart attacks and strokes increase.

Don't forget about vitamins and minerals

In heat we lose more magnesium, potassium and sodium, their lack should be filled. “Potassium, for example, can be obtained from  hazelnuts, — says Anna Ivashkevich, dietitian and family therapist, — it is enough to eat a small handful a day, 8-10 pieces. By the way, nuts can be a great snack if you add seasonal berries and fruits. Magnesium can also be obtained from foods, it contains chocolate, buckwheat, spinach, almonds and cashew».

For the heat, cooling products are often recommended, those that contain a lot of moisture. These are cucumbers, zucchini, with minimal heat treatment, steamed or stewed. These are broccoli and cauliflower, which can also be steamed or blanched. Excellent refreshing kefir. It also saturates, if you take not  fat-free, but 3.2%. Add herbs, spices to and you will get a great snack or a light dish.

Exclude icy and heavy

However, cravings for refreshing and cold foods and drinks can damage our digestive system. "Such drinks and dishes cool for a short time — notes Irina Yuzup, — but the body needs to work hard to warm and digest such food, and we remember that the main forces go to thermoregulation. Dishes and drinks should not be colder than 10-15 degrees Celsius. The expert also recommends to refrain from eating heavy, fatty, fried, fast food. The  body must have the strength to cool and fight heat, and such products are too heavy.

Plan your purchases

Poison yourself with spoiled foods in  — lighter than easy. Even the products you just bought from the shop can spoil on the way home in stuffy vehicles.

Nadezhda Raeva, Head of the Food Hygiene Supervision Department of the Rospotrebnadzor Office for the Moscow Region, warns: ""Any protein foods spoil very quickly. They should be stored at a temperature of + 2- + 4 & nbsp; degrees. And it is dangerous to transport them without a cooler bag. We can not save this temperature during transportation. Of course, the manufacturer provides for a certain reserve ratio, for example, you can carry products from store to home in 15-20 minutes, but often it is not possible to get there so quickly. And already if you have to go by public transport — it's much longer. According to the expert, at at-risk — sausage, meat and fish, even dairy products, you should pay special attention to them, since we eat cottage cheese and kefir without heat treatment. Even ice cream spoils in the heat: if it begins to thaw, then pathogenic bacteria also develop in it, therefore it is not recommended to eat melted ice cream.

To avoid the explosive multiplication of bacteria in products that occurs on  hot weather, it is best to stock up on a cooler bag or a thermal pack for transporting groceries, plan shopping times, go only to the nearest stores or buy groceries early in the morning or late in the evening when there is no strong heat.

Water treatments

Rest by pond and swimming — one of the main ways to cool off and favorite entertainment on weekends. Here, too, you need to act wisely. You can’t warm up too much in the sun, and then rush into cold water, says Anna Shulyaeva, an immunologist-allergist: “Sudden temperature changes don’t have a very good effect.” this and  constriction of blood vessels, and  many other troubles. It can be fraught with various problems, up to  cardiac failures. It is generally better to avoid frying in the sun, and choose reservoirs with a comfortable temperature for swimming.

Cream — required

For more than a year now, doctors have been actively recommending not to go outside in the heat and under the sun without sunscreen. Moreover, it is advised to use maximum filters — more often we are talking about a value of 50. “Creams should be with SPF 30-50 protection. It is important to remember this, because burns come on quickly and not always you can feel them right away, and unpleasant symptoms will bother you for a long time — redness, burning, peeling skin, inability to lie down, — notes Anna Shulyaeva.

Car overheating

“Iron Friend” also suffers from heat and may fail at any minute, overheating on the road. And & nbsp; this is already fraught with danger for the person sitting in it: no one wants to be under the scorching rays of the sun in an open field. The most common cause of overheating is the radiator, which over the years has become clogged with dirt, poplar fluff, chemicals, etc. The radiator is damaged even during an unsuccessful car wash.

Another reason for frequent overheating of the motor is a faulty thermostat, which stops opening the external circuit of the cooling system, due to which the antifreeze circulates in a small circle. Incomplete opening of its valve will lead to deterioration in the supply of antifreeze from the engine to the radiator.

Aif.ru advises that you also need to check under the hood of the car so that overheating is not terrible for your car >&gt ;>

Water is leaving

From year to year, heat waves become longer and more frequent, their temperature gradually rises. This does not remain without consequences, the climate affects not only the health of people, but the landscape, and the behavior of animals.

Because of the heat, there are threats, including energy the security of Russia, and and the whole world as a whole. This is how Siberian rivers become shallow, even such full-flowing rivers as the Ob and the Yenisei.

"Low water levels in Siberian rivers are explained by abnormal meteorological conditions of the current year — little snowy winter and hot spring. This kind of low water occurs approximately once in 75-100 years. There is nothing unusual here, nature has certain cycles, — says the head Department of Land Hydrology, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, Doctor of Geographical Sciences Natalia Frolova. — Low water — this is a seasonal or long-term period of low water content, and this is a dangerous hydrological phenomenon, unfortunately, it is observed more and more often on the territory of Russia. It carries a lot of consequences — social, economic, environmental… First, shipping is suffering. Secondly, the generation of electricity by river HPPs is decreasing, because their indicators directly depend on the volume of water accumulated in reservoirs. Thirdly, there are interruptions in the water supply of the population and industrial enterprises. In addition, water quality is deteriorating, crop yields are falling, risks to human health arise, and the quality of life in general decreases.

Attack of slugs

Hot weather also affects the behavior of animals, more precisely their migration, their exploration of new territories.

For example, in Russia, animals from other, more southern regions began to appear more and more often. So, in the gardens of central Russia, red Spanish slugs were noticed, which could inadvertently be brought from southern countries along with fruits and vegetables. And the slugs took root. Gardeners have already managed to invent an original way to deal with them. It is necessary to bury next to the beds attacked by invertebrates, a tin can, where to pour some beer. According to Andrei Tumanov, a gardener and gardener, slugs love beer and will gather in large numbers of such traps.

Scientists believe that one of reasons  — global warming. Strengthening of invasions (that is, the appearance of invasive species — ed. note) all over the world, scientists associate with including it (global warming — ed. note), — told aif.ru Varos Petrosyan, chief researcher at the Institute of Ecology Problems and evolution named after A. N. Severtsova RAS, Doctor of Biological Sciences. A year ago, the UN published the next, sixth in a row, report on what is happening with climate on the planet. Warming is proceeding at an unprecedented rate, changes are taking place in nature, which have not happened for hundreds of thousands of years. This report presents 40 models in different regions of the Earth. Until  2040, all these models are quite close and show a warming of  1.5 °C. And farther, until 2100 the year, the scenarios differ, the range of possible warming ranges from 4.6 to 6 °C».

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